Catholic Holocaust Remembrance Day

Women in Auschwitz May 1944
Birkenau, May 1944

From now on, as we celebrate the memory of this new saint every August 9, we cannot fail to remember the Holocaust.

–Pope St. John Paul II, at the canonization of the Jewish philosopher Edith Stein–who had become Sister Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.

She did not die on August 9, 1942, in a wild frenzy of racist violence. She died in the due course of the Nazi’s systematic implementation of an explicit policy–a policy they had developed over the course of two decades.

According to National-Socialist racial doctrine—which Hitler and his allies openly proposed as their party platform during the 1930’s—Jews had ‘infiltrated,’ had ‘invaded,’ had aspired to ‘conquer’ the German nation. Hitler alone had the clarity and courage to ‘fight back,’ to enunciate clearly that Germans must preserve the purity of their race.

St. Edith Stein
St. Edith Stein

The Nazis declared this the fundamental national priority. The presence of Jews in the life of the German nation was not, in their eyes, the simple reality of history. It was a problem. The #1 problem.

Hitler and the Nazis unapologetically proposed this idea as the basis for an entire political, legal, and military regime. The power that martyred Sister Teresa Benedicta was not a band of bloodthirsty marauders, obvious monsters, or stereotypical jackbooted thugs. No. A political alliance, based on Hitler’s ideas about German blood, developed an extensive technical and bureaucratic organization. Over the course of a decade, the Nazis established their idea as the organizing principle of German national life.

At Holy Mass today, we hear Moses rejoicing in the gift of God’s law. He revealed it fully on the cross, when the soldier pierced His Heart: the eternal law of love.

We human beings can go wrong. Our laws do not always correspond to the divine decree revealed in the wounded Heart of the Savior. We must constantly search ourselves for the evil of racism. And pray that, by the grace of God, we will see each other as who we truly are–one human family, with the loving God as our Father.

Our Vichy Regime

Philippe Petain Vichy

Seventy-six years ago today, Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) died in a Nazi gas chamber. She was Jewish Catholic nun. She had received the sacraments of Christian initiation at age thirty, in 1922. She gladly met her death, at age fifty, as an act of love for her people.

This saint, in her all-encompassing devotion to Christ, kept in focus the key thing that the real heroes in World War II never lost: reverence for the dignity of the individual human person.

The Catholic Bishops of the Netherlands had enunciated that concept and publicly condemned Nazism just two weeks before St. Edith Stein’s martyrdom. The Nazis rounded up the Catholic nuns in revenge for that condemnation.

St. Edith SteinPope St. John Paul II declared that the Catholic Church must remember the Holocaust each year, on the anniversary of Edith Stein’s death.

This year, because of the McCarrick scandal, I want to contrast St. Teresa Benedicta’s experience of the Holocaust with that of a fellow Catholic, Philippe Pétain.

Anyone know him? Maybe you do, if you’re a Jeopardy! addict like me. Pétain ran the “Vichy Regime” in France, which collaborated with the Nazis.

Edith Stein died for the Christian truth of individual human dignity; meanwhile, Pétain and the Vichy regime in France lost sight of the concept. The regime had the trappings of a legitimate government. But it was compromised at its core.

After World War II ended, a highly politicized French court convicted Pétain of treason and sentenced him to death. Charles De Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment, because of Pétain’s advanced age. At that moment in her history, the French nation had an opportunity for profound self-examination of her identity. But she didn’t really take it.

I bring all this up because: I think we may have stumbled upon a good analogy to help us understand where we are, the Catholic Church in the US, right now.

We need to keep clearly in focus what St. Teresa Benedicta died for: the dignity of the human individual. We need to start with the individual human beings that Theodore McCarrick preyed on. The dignity of those people demands that we advocate for them and insist on justice–and a public reckoning with all the facts.

The USCCB seems to mirror the inner-emptiness of the Vichy regime. What remains utterly absent from any public response to the McCarrick scandal by any American bishop so far? The mention of the individual human beings still awaiting justice in this case. Instead, the bishops can only focus on the survival of their own bureaucracy.

McCarrick flourished in this very Vichy-regime bureaucracy. The real, evangelizing, pro-life Church–submitted under the reigning spirit of the technocratic, post-modern world. The Catholic Vichy Regime of late 20th-century and early 21st-century America.

I promise to try to break down this (admittedly preposterous) generalization with specific analyzes as we move forward. May the Vichy regime fall. We can hope that it will, if we stay focused on precisely what St. Edith Stein died for, in the gas chamber, 76 years ago today: the dignity of the human individual.

75th Anniversary of a Holocaust Death

Exactly seventy-five years and two weeks ago, the Catholic bishops of the Netherlands issued a statement condemning the Nazis for deporting all Jews from the country.

Seventy-five years ago today, the Nazis killed a German Jewish philosopher in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, as an act of retaliation against the bishops’statement.

St. Edith SteinNow, how’s that? Kill a German Jewish philosopher to retaliate against Dutch Catholic bishops? Well, this Jewish philosopher had become a Catholic nun. Edith Stein had become Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.

The sisters of her convent had escaped Germany, and made it to the Netherlands. But the Nazis caught up with them. And when the Dutch Catholic bishops had the gall to call the Nazis the vicious racists they were, the Nazis proceeded to arrest and deport all Jewish converts to Catholicism. As we know, the Nazis were efficient. They only needed two weeks to get their revenge, in the gas chamber.

Pope St. John Paul II declared that we must remember the Holocaust on St. Teresa Benedicta’s feast day. Nazi racism justified the systematic killing of millions of innocent people—racist killing carried out with scientific coldness. My departed grandfather participated, as an American G.I., in rescuing people from one of the concentration camps. What he saw horrified him so much, he could never talk about it.

But we must. We must acknowledge the fact that man can, and does, inflict such evil upon man—and for no good reasons other than his own profound spiritual delusions.

On the other hand, man can, and does, also love his fellow man. St. Teresa Benedicta died for love. “Come, let us go for our people,” she said to her sister, who had also become a nun, as they walked to the gas chamber.

Pope St. John Paul II put it like this, when he canonized St. Teresa Benedicta, “We must stand together for human dignity. There is only one human family.”

Jewish Saint

Our beloved late Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, beatified St. Teresa Benedicta, canonized her, and then declared her to be a Co-Patroness of Europe.

She held a special place in the Pope’s heart, obviously: The Nazis killed her in the Pope’s homeland, under the brutal regime which he himself endured as a young man. And, like the Pope’s oldest friend from childhood, with whom he liked to play ping-pong, among other things—like Jerzy Kluger, St. Teresa Benedicta was Jewish.

Before St. Teresa Benedicta became Sister Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, she was called Edith Stein. She was a prominent philosopher who had rejected the Jewish faith she grew up with. Then she found Christ, or rather Christ found her. She became a Catholic and a Carmelite nun.

Played ping-pong with the Pope. (RIP. He died this past New Year’s Eve.)
When the bishops where Sister Teresa Benedicta lived protested against the Nazi abuses, the Nazis retaliated by arresting Teresa and sending her to Auschwitz. The saint willingly died with her brother- and sister-Jews, out of love for the crucified Christ, her Jewish Savior, Whom she loved above all.

When Pope John Paul canonized St. Teresa Benedicta, he declared that her Memorial every year should serve as an occasion for the Church to remember the vicious evil of the Holocaust.

Today we pray for all the victims of Nazi violence, that they might rest in peace. And we re-dedicate ourselves to standing up for the universal brotherhood of all mankind.

The Pope said, when he instituted this feast day: “We must all stand together for human dignity. There is only one human family.”